We generalize the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis to systems with global symmetries. We present two versions, one with microscopic charge conservation and one with exponentially suppressed violations. They agree for correlation functions of simple operators, but differ in the variance of charged one-point functions at finite temperature. We then apply these ideas to holography and to gravitational low-energy effective theories with a global symmetry. We show that Euclidean wormholes predict a non-zero variance for charged one-point functions, which is incompatible with microscopic charge conservation. This implies that global symmetries in quantum gravity must either be gauged or explicitly broken by non-perturbative effects.
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Authors / Affiliations: mappings to Contributors and OrganizationsSee all Organizations.
- 1 Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire / European Organization for Nuclear Research [CERN]
- 2 Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam [IoP, UvA]
- 3 Université de Genève / University of Geneva [UNIGE]
- FP7 Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) (through Organization: European Commission [EC])
- Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung / Swiss National Science Foundation [SNF]