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Entanglement in the full state vector of boson sampling

Yulong Qiao, Joonsuk Huh, Frank Grossmann

SciPost Phys. 15, 007 (2023) · published 12 July 2023


The full state vector of boson sampling is generated by passing $S$ single photons through beam splitters of $M$ modes. We express the initial Fock state in terms of 2$^{S-1}$ generalized coherent states, making possible the exact application of the unitary evolution. Due to the favorable polynomial scaling of numerical effort in $M$, we can investigate Rényi entanglement entropies for moderate particle and huge mode numbers. We find symmetric Page curves with a maximum entropy at equal partition, which is almost independent on Rényi index. Furthermore, the maximum entropy as a function of mode index saturates for $M\geq S^2$ in the collision-free subspace case. The asymptotic value of the entropy increases linearly with $S$. In addition, we show that the build-up of the entanglement leads to a cusp in the asymmetric entanglement curve. Maximum entanglement is reached well before the mode population is distributed over the whole system.

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