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Optimizing Floquet engineering for non-equilibrium steady states with gradient-based methods

Alberto Castro, Shunsuke A. Sato

SciPost Phys. 15, 029 (2023) · published 26 July 2023


Non-equilibrium steady states are created when a periodically driven quantum system is also incoherently interacting with an environment - as it is the case in most realistic situations. The notion of Floquet engineering refers to the manipulation of the properties of systems under periodic perturbations. Although it more frequently refers to the coherent states of isolated systems (or to the transient phase for states that are weakly coupled to the environment), it may sometimes be of more interest to consider the final steady states that are reached after decoherence and dissipation take place. In this work, we demonstrate how those final states can be optimally tuned with respect to a given predefined metric, such as for example the maximization of the temporal average value of some observable, by using multicolor periodic perturbations. We show a computational framework that can be used for that purpose, and exemplify the concept using a simple model for the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond: the goal in this case is to find the driving periodic magnetic field that maximizes a time-averaged spin component. We show that, for example, this technique permits to prepare states whose spin values are forbidden in thermal equilibrium at any temperature.

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