We investigate the quantum-critical behavior between the rung-singlet phase with hidden string order and the Néel phase with broken SU(2)-symmetry in quantum spin ladders with algebraically decaying unfrustrated long-range Heisenberg interactions. To this end, we determine high-order series expansions of energies and observables in the thermodynamic limit about the isolated rung-dimer limit. This is achieved by extending the method of perturbative continuous unitary transformations (pCUT) to long-range Heisenberg interactions and to the calculation of generic observables. The quantum-critical breakdown of the rung-singlet phase then allows us to determine the critical phase transition line and the entire set of critical exponents as a function of the decay exponent of the long-range interaction. We demonstrate long-range mean-field behavior as well as a non-trivial regime of continuously varying critical exponents implying the absence of deconfined criticality contrary to a recent suggestion in the literature.