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Entanglement classification via operator size

Qi-Feng Wu

SciPost Phys. Core 6, 063 (2023) · published 15 September 2023


In this work, multipartite entanglement is classified by polynomials. I show that the operator size is closely related to the entanglement structure. Given a generic quantum state, I define a series of subspaces generated by operators of different sizes acting on it. The information about the entanglement is encoded into these subspaces. With the dimension of these subspaces as coefficients, I define a polynomial which I call the entanglement polynomial. The entanglement polynomial induces a homomorphism from quantum states to polynomials. It implies that we can characterize and find the building blocks of entanglement by polynomial factorization. Two states share the same entanglement polynomial if they are equivalent under the stochastic local operations and classical communication. To calculate the entanglement polynomial practically, I construct a series of states, called renormalized states, whose ranks are related to the coefficients of the entanglement polynomial.

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