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Rational $Q$-systems, Higgsing and mirror symmetry

Jie Gu, Yunfeng Jiang, Marcus Sperling

SciPost Phys. 14, 034 (2023) · published 15 March 2023


The rational $Q$-system is an efficient method to solve Bethe ansatz equations for quantum integrable spin chains. We construct the rational $Q$-systems for generic Bethe ansatz equations described by an $A_{\ell-1}$ quiver, which include models with multiple momentum carrying nodes, generic inhomogeneities, generic diagonal twists and $q$-deformation. The rational $Q$-system thus constructed is specified by two partitions. Under Bethe/Gauge correspondence, the rational $Q$-system is in a one-to-one correspondence with a 3d $\mathcal{N}=4$ quiver gauge theory of the type ${T}_{{\rho}}^{{\sigma}}[\mathrm{SU}(n)]$, which is also specified by the same partitions. This shows that the rational $Q$-system is a natural language for the Bethe/Gauge correspondence, because known features of the ${T}_{{\rho}}^{{\sigma}}[\mathrm{SU}(n)]$ theories readily translate. For instance, we show that the Higgs and Coulomb branch Higgsing correspond to modifying one of the partitions in the rational $Q$-system while keeping the other untouched. Similarly, mirror symmetry is realized in terms of the rational $Q$-system by simply swapping the two partitions - exactly as for ${T}_{{\rho}}^{{\sigma}}[\mathrm{SU}(n)]$. We exemplify the computational efficiency of the rational $Q$-system by evaluating topologically twisted indices for 3d $\mathcal{N}=4$ $\mathrm{U}(n)$ SQCD theories with $n=1,\ldots,5$.

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