SciPost logo

Muon puzzle in inclined muon bundles detected by NEVOD-DECOR

A. G. Bogdanov, N. S. Barbashina, S. S. Khokhlov, V. V. Kindin, R. P. Kokoulin, K. G. Kompaniets, A. Y. Konovalova, G. Mannocchi, A. A. Petrukhin, V. V. Shutenko, G. Trinchero, V. S. Vorobev, I. I. Yashin, E. A. Yurina, E. A. Zadeba

SciPost Phys. Proc. 13, 003 (2023) · published 28 September 2023

Proceedings event

21st International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions


The data of cosmic ray NEVOD-DECOR experiment on the investigation of inclined muon bundles for a long time period (May 2012 - March 2021) are presented. The analysis showed that the observed intensity of muon bundles at primary cosmic ray energies of about 1 EeV and higher can be compatible with the expectation in frame of widely used hadron interaction models only under the assumption of an extremely heavy mass composition. This conclusion is consistent with data of several experiments on investigations of muon content in air showers, but contradicts the available fluorescence data on $X_{\text{max}}$ which favor a light mass composition at these energies. In order to clarify the nature of the "muon puzzle", investigations of the muon bundle energy deposit in the detector material were carried out. For the first time, experimental estimates of the average energy of muons in the bundles of inclined air showers initiated by primary particles with energies from 10 to 1000 PeV have been obtained.

Authors / Affiliations: mappings to Contributors and Organizations

See all Organizations.
Funder for the research work leading to this publication