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Transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions for spin-1 hadrons

S. Kumano, Qin-Tao Song

SciPost Phys. Proc. 8, 174 (2022) · published 14 July 2022

Proceedings event

28th Annual Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) and Related Subjects


We show transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) for spin-1 hadrons including twist-3 and 4 functions by taking the decomposition of a quark correlation function in the Lorentz-invariant way with the conditions of Hermiticity and parity invariance. We found 30 new TMDs in the tensor-polarized spin-1 hadron at twists 3 and 4 in addition to 10 TMDs at twist 2. Since time-reversal-odd terms of the collinear correlation function should vanish after integrals over the partonic transverse momentum, we obtained new sum rules for the time-reversal-odd structure functions, ${\int d^2 k_T g_{LT} = \int d^2 k_T h_{LL} = \int d^2 k_T h_{3LL} =0}$, at twists 3 and 4. We also indicated that transverse-momentum-dependent fragmentation functions exist in tensor-polarized spin-1 hadrons. The TMDs can probe color degrees of freedom, so that they are valuable in providing unique opportunities for creating interdisciplinary physics fields such as gluon condensate, color Aharonov-Bohm effect, and color entanglement. We also found three new collinear PDFs at twists 3 and 4, and a twist-2 relation and a sum rule were derived in analogy to the Wandzura-Wilczek relation and the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule on the structure function ${g_2}$.

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